Inspiration for Current Center

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Research Publications

Inspiration for Current Center | Current AutoTutor Related Publications

Inspiration for Current Center

Our previous work in the areas of adult literacy, curriculum, AutoTutor, Coh-Metrix, statistical analysis, and student motivation has inspired our ideas for this Center's focus. A selection of articles and book chapters representative of our previous work are listed below.

Adult Literacy:


Greenberg, D., Pae, H. K., Morris, R. D., Calhoon, M. B., & Nanda, A. O. (2009). Measuring adult literacy students' reading skills using the Gray Oral Reading Test. Annals of Dyslexia, 59, 133-149. doi:10.1007/s11881-009-0027-8.

Hall, R., Greenberg, D., Laures-Gore, J., & Pae. H. K. (2012). The relationship between expressive vocabulary and reading skills for adult struggling readers. Journal of Research in Reading. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.2012.01537.x

Pae, H., & Greenberg, D. (in press). The relationship between receptive and expressive subskills of adult English learners’ academic L2 skills: A multigroup approach. Reading Psychology.

Pae, H. K., Greenberg, D., & Morris, R. D. (2012). Construct validity and measurement invariance of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III Form A in the performance of struggling adult readers: Rasch modeling. Language Assessment Quarterly, 9, 152-171. doi: 10.1080/15434303.2011.613504.

Pae, H. K., Greenberg, D., & Williams, R. S.(2012). An analysis of differential response patterns on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IIIB in adult struggling readers and third-grade children. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 25,  1239-1258. doi:10.1007/s11145-011-9315-x

Taylor, N. A., Greenberg, D., Laures-Gore, J., & Wise, J. C. (2012). Exploring the syntactic skills of struggling adult readers. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 25, 1385-1402. doi: 10.1007/s11145-011-9324-9


Greenberg, D., Fredrick, L, Hughes, T. A., & Bunting, C. J. (2002). Implementation
issues in a reading program for low reading adults: A program designed to teach children and youth to read was used in two classes for adults. An explanation and description of the implementation, reports of learner progress, and the perceptions of the participants are discussed. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 45, 626-632.

Greenberg, D., Wise, J., Morris, R., Fredrick, L., Rodrigo, V., Nanda, A.O., & Pae, H. K. (2011). A randomized-control study of instructional approaches for struggling adult readers. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 4, 101-117. doi: 10.1080/19345747.2011.555288.

Rodrigo, V., Greenberg, D., Burke, V., Hall, R., Berry, A., Brinck, T., Joseph, H., & Oby, M. (2007). Implementing an extensive reading program and library for adult literacy learners. Reading in a Foreign Language, 19, 106-119.


Greenberg, D. (2008). The challenges facing adult literacy programs. Community Literacy Journal, 3, 39-54.


Greenberg, D., Wise, J. C., & Frijters, J. C., Morris, M., Fredrick, L. D., Rodrigo, V., & Hall, R. (2012). Persisters and nonpersisters: Identifying who stays and who leaves from adult literacy interventions. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s11145-012-9401-8

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D'Mello, S. K., Dowell, N., & Graesser, A. C. (2011). Does it really matter whether students' contributions are spoken versus typed in an intelligent tutoring system with natural language? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 17(1), 1-17.

Graesser, A.C. (2011). Learning, thinking, and emoting with discourse technologies. American Psychologist, 66, 743-757.

Graesser, A.C., & McNamara, D.S. (2010).  Self-regulated learning in learning environments with pedagogical agents that interact in natural language. Educational Psychologist, 45, 234-244.

Graesser, A. C., D’Mello, S. K., Hu. X., Cai, Z., Olney, A., & Morgan, B. (2012). AutoTutor. In P. McCarthy and C. Boonthum-Denecke (Eds.), Applied natural language processing: Identification, investigation, and resolution (pp. 169-187). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

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Graesser, A.C., & McNamara, D.S. (2011). Computational analyses of multilevel discourse comprehension. Topics in Cognitive Science, 3, 371-398.

Graesser, A.C., McNamara, D.S., & Kulikowich, J.M. (2011). Coh Metrix: Providing multilevel analyses of text characteristics. Educational Researcher, 40, 223-234.

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Frijters, J. C., Lovett, M. W., Sevcik, R. A., & Morris, R. D. (2012). Four methods of identifying change in the context of a multiple component reading intervention for struggling middle school readers. Reading and Writing:  An Interdisciplinary Journal. doi: 10.1007/s11145-012-9418-z

Lovett, M. W., Barron, R. W., & Frijters, J. C. (2013). Word identification difficulties in children and adolescents with reading disabilities:  Intervention research findings. In H. L. Swanson, K. Harris, & S. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of Learning Disabilities (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Lovett, M. W., Lacerenza, L., De Palma, M., & Frijters, J. C. (2012). Evaluating the efficacy of remediation for struggling readers in high school. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(2), 151-169. doi: 10.1177/0022219410371678

Lovett, M.W., Lacerenza, L., De Palma, M., Benson, N. J., Steinbach, K.A., & Frijters, J.C. (2008). Preparing teachers to remediate reading disabilities in high school: What is needed for effective professional development? Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(4), 1083-1097.

Lovett, M. W., Lacerenza, L., & Borden, S. L. (2000). Putting struggling readers on the PHAST track: A program to integrate phonological and strategy-based remedial reading instruction and maximize outcomes. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, 458-476. doi: 10.1177/002221940003300507

Lovett, M. W., Lacerenza, L., Borden, S. L., Frijters, J. C., Steinbach, K. A., & Palma, M. D. (2000). Components of effective remediation for developmental reading disabilities: Combining phonological and strategy-based instruction to improve outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 263-283. doi: 10.1037/0022-663.92.2.263

Lovett, M. W., Lacerenza, L., Murphy, D., Steinbach, K. A., De Palma, M., & Frijters, J. C. (2005). The importance of multiple-component interventions for children and adolescents who are struggling readers. In J. Gilger & S. Richardson (Eds.), Research-Based Education and Intervention: What We Need To Know (pp. 67-102). Baltimore, MD: International Dyslexia Association.

Morris, R., Lovett, M., Wolf, M., Sevcik, R., Steinbach, K., Shapiro, M., et. al. (2012). Multiple component remediation for developmental reading disabilities: IQ, socioeconomic status, and race as factors in remedial outcome. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(2), 99-127. doi:10.1177/0022219409355472

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Statistical Analyses:

MacArthur, C.  A., Greenberg, D., Mellard, D. F., & Sabatini, J. P. (2010). Introduction to the special issue on models of reading component skills in low literate adults. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43(2), 99-100. doi: 10.1177/0022219409359340.

Nanda, A. O., Greenberg, D., & Morris, R. (2010). Modeling child-based theoretical constructs with struggling adult readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43(2), 139-153. doi: 10.1177/0022219409359344.

Mehta, P. D., Foorman, B. R., Branum-Martin, L., & Taylor, W. P. (2005). Literacy as a unidimensional multilevel construct: Validation, sources of influence, and implications in a longitudinal study in grades 1 to 4. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9 (2), 85-116. doi: 10.1207/s1532799xss0902_1

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Student Motivation:

Fulmer, S. M., & Frijters, J. C. (2009). A review of self-report and alternative approaches in the measurement of student motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 21(3), 219-246. doi: 10.1007/s10648-009-9107-x

Fulmer, S., & Frijters, J. C. (2011). Motivation during an excessively challenging reading task: The buffering role of relative topic interest. Journal of Experimental Education, 79(2), 185-208. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2010.481503